The neglect of youth mental health is a form of self-harm that society has inflicted on itself. -- John Gunn, 2004. Foreword. In Bailey, S. & Dolan, M., (Eds). Adolescent Forensic Psychiatry.
Introduction to the Problem
Education is described as a public good (UNESCO, 2015) and is positively associated with economic and social outcomes for both individuals and states (OECD, 2020; World Bank, 2018; World Economic Forum, 2020). While there are many challenges and obstacles to realizing universal basic education and education to maximize citizen participation and potentiality, this paper focuses on one such challenge: learner mental well-being. Specifically, this paper offers rationale for and proposes a new policy to build educator capacity in such a way that learner mental well-being is supported and barriers to well-being are minimized in the context of Canada’s post-secondary education (PSE) system.
The lens I apply to the evolution of this paper and its incorporated policy proposal is one of optimism – optimism that we have the collective wisdom and ability to create learning environments in which every learner ‘sees’ themselves in the curriculum and pedagogy with which they are interacting; is able to flourish and discover their true passion; and can succeed with resilience, motivation, and hope for the future. After all, “[p]edagogy is at the core of teaching and learning” (Paniagua & Istance, 2018, p. 20) and educators are at the core of pedagogy.
Differentiating Mental Health and Mental Well-being
In its Constitution, the World Health Organization inextricably includes mental health and well-being as integrated components and determinants of overall health: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 2013, p. 7). For its part, Canada’s working definition of mental health is “the capacities of each and all of us to feel, think, and act in ways that enhance our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. It is a positive sense of emotional and spiritual well-being that respects the importance of culture, equity, social justice, interconnections, and personal dignity” (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2002, para. 2). ‘Well-being’ or ‘mental well-being’ is more than just the absence of any form of ailment or illness. It “is associated with experiences of personal growth, intrinsic motivation, positive relationships, autonomy and competence” (Baik et al., 2017, p. 3).
A learner’s decision to disclose information about a mental health issue is both intensely personal and deeply complex (Madness, Distress and the Politics of Disablement, 2015). They may not recognize they have an issue or may fear stigma or discrimination (Markoulakis & Kirsh, 2013). Respecting this, in this paper, I use the term ‘well-being’ rather than ‘mental health’ because we all have and experience well-being and, while we all may experience a decline in well-being from time to time, not all of us would consider this a ‘health’ issue. Well-being tends to be both an individual and a collective, social good. Notwithstanding that some learners require a deeper level of support beyond that possible in a school, by using the term ‘well-being’ when I refer to supporting educator ‘mental well-being literacy,’ it includes the well-being of all learners regardless of their personal decision to disclose health information.
State of Learner Mental Health in Canada
The vulnerability of post-secondary learners in Canada is evidenced by the growth and frequency of the challenges they face to mental well-being. Indeed, it has been described as an “important public health concern” (Wiens et al., 2020, p. 30). The Mental Health Commission of Canada (2013, as cited in Porter, 2019) estimates that, by the time Canadians reach 40 years of age, half will have experienced some form of mental illness. Three-quarters of these diagnoses will have been confirmed by 24 years of age. In addition, and to underscore the threat to young adults 15 to 24 years of age, suicide is the second leading cause of death – 25% of this age cohort. To exacerbate this problem, millennials are less likely to seek help than previous generations (jack.org, 2019). In 2016, as part of the Canadian National College Health Assessment (ACHA, 2016), 59.6% of learners reported feelings of hopelessness in the preceding year, 64.5% experienced overpowering anxiety, and 44.4% reported trouble functioning due to depression. Each of these measures increased in comparison to the previous assessment in 2013 (Porter, 2019).
Indigenous learners fare even less well in comparison with their non-indigenous compeers. Across a variety of indicators, indigenous learners experience psychological distress and depression at higher rates and are more likely to engage in suicide ideation, with First Nations and Inuit youth committing suicide six times and 11 times more often, respectively, than non-indigenous learners (Hop Wo et al., 2020).
Academic Success and Learner Mental Well-being
Education, particularly post-secondary education, has a positive influence on mental well-being (Yakovlev & Leguizamon, 2012). Conversely, a low level of well-being often accompanied by physical ailments, can impede the ability and motivation to learn (Houghton & Anderson, 2017). In an emergent knowledge society in which education is a key driver and indicator of economic success, universities and colleges have a pivotal role to support, enhance, and transform the life and health of citizens and the communities in which they live (Okanagan Charter: An International Charter for Health Promoting Universities and Colleges, 2015).
There are barriers, however, to achieving this goal. While some are systemic and deep-rooted organizational and operational challenges, others stem from external pressures on the organization. Because of the diversity of personal characteristics, beliefs, values, needs, and expectations, challenges posed by people or groups of people can be among the most demanding. Arguably, the most critical of these is student academic success (International Conference on Health Promoting Universities & Colleges, 2015). “Results from the 2018 National College Health Assessment (NCHA) found that 87% of Canadian post-secondary students felt overwhelmed by their academic responsibilities, 84% felt exhausted (not from physical activity), just under two-thirds (63%) felt overwhelming anxiety, and 42% felt so depressed that they found it difficult to function” (jack.org, 2019, p. 24).
Recent research correlates learner mental well-being with academic success (Linden & Stuart, 2019; McEwan & Downie, 2013). Learners face a variety of challenges in pursuit of academic success, such as during their transition from high school into PSE. This often includes unfamiliar experiences and expectations in unknown environments; conflicting demands, deadlines, and priorities; pressures to perform well (Cunningham & Duffy, 2019; Linden & Stuart, 2019; Pascoe et al., 2020; Rosvall, 2019), and use of unfamiliar learning technologies (Taylor et al., 2018). One study (Poole et al., 2017) also explores the seemingly incongruous academic stressors created by time away from studies, such as that resulting from the recently-implemented fall break week at Canadian colleges and universities. On their own or when combined with other stressors, such as living away from home, peer pressure, changing personal relationships, and financial matters, they can be daunting, intimidating, and even paralyzing as they erode one’s resilience (Cunningham & Duffy, 2019; Linden & Stuart, 2019; Pascoe et al., 2020; Rosvall, 2019). Such stressors may also create implications beyond academic performance, potentially leading to unemployment, underemployment, and other financial challenges (da Silva et al., 2017).
School Districts, Schools, and Learner Mental Well-being
By 2013, the focus of the Canadian PSE community shifted from one of supporting the mental health needs of individual learners to one of creating an environment that promotes and supports the well-being of all learners (CCVPS, 2015). While there appears to be widespread interest and enthusiasm in and the desire to support all learners in the way they each need support, especially those who are most vulnerable, a survey of schools and school districts by the Mental Health Commission of Canada revealed that these intentions are not materializing (Fortier et al., 2017; Weist et al., 2003). The survey found that few schools have either the infrastructure or processes in place to sustainably deliver any programs supportive of learner mental well-being. Educators, themselves, also acknowledged their own lack of knowledge about and comfort in delivering programs supportive of learner mental health and well-being and their desire for role-specific training and capacity building. Finally, schools and school districts cited a lack of access to evidence-based information and examples of programming needed to be supportive.
Despite these shortcomings, it is incorrect to think that PSE institutions failed to address well-being concerns rooted in academic stressors. The original conception of the education system was to prepare learners for the workforce, and it was not designed with the mental health and well-being needs of learners in mind. There are many initiatives that exist at most schools to address part of this need (jack.org, 2019). These are not the subject of this paper.
It appears as though a gap exists between the desired state – support for all learners – and educator capacity, especially given the diversity and complexity of learner needs (Daniszewski, 2013; Ireland, 2017). The gap exists due to an insufficiency of financial, temporal, and professional development resources. If educator capacity is to improve and evolve into a culture of continuous and lifelong learning, the entire infrastructure of a school must be oriented toward providing 360o support for teaching and learning, including educator professional development (Ireland, 2017; Paniagua & Istance, 2018).
Recognizing that Canada lacks any federal authority regarding the governance of education and provision of educational services, but that the Government of Canada has a vested interest in its citizens being adequately prepared for future success, it is imperative that a comprehensive learner well-being support policy that focuses on educator capacity building be established collaboratively by all levels of government, including the involvement of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit.
Such a policy should account for and acknowledge that all Canadians have a basic right to seek success and strive toward their potentiality and that education is one of the best ways to facilitate this. It should recognize that a learner’s academic journey has the potential to add stressors that may adversely affect well-being, and that learners who transition into the workforce with mental illness and those who withdraw from the workforce for the same reason add to the burden on the economy either through increased health costs or decreased productivity.
In order to be of greatest benefit, keeping in mind that any work done to support learners with mental illness will be a benefit for all learners in the development of their personal resilience, well-being, and self-awareness; the policy should be oriented toward educators, including building their capacity to support learners’ well-being as well as related curriculum and pedagogical practices. These include practices that help to mitigate stressors that learners may experience on their academic journey. One such significant stressor relates to financial matters (Cunningham & Duffy, 2019; Linden & Stuart, 2019; Pascoe et al., 2020; Rosvall, 2019) which, among other considerations, includes the increasing costs of textbooks and other learning materials and resources. By making use of open educational resources (see Appendix A) and similar learning and teaching options, educators and schools help to mitigate the costs associated with learning and, by association, the financial burden on learners.
The following Policy Proposal represents the framework for a policy discussion between the Government of Canada, its provinces and territories, and indigenous peoples. It is my recommendation that each jurisdiction require the creation and implementation of such a policy at each PSE institution.
TABLE 1: Policy Proposal: Building Educator Capacity to Support Learner Well-being
This policy establishes the institution’s commitment to respecting and supporting the health and well-being of learners and employees to the extent that can be accomplished through ongoing professional development and capacity building.
Recognizing the importance of reconciliation with indigenous peoples in order that Canadians know their true national history and to right systemic injustices from the past, this policy should be implemented and interpreted only in conjunction with institutional policies related to Decolonization and Indigenization.
This policy also complements and enhances other existing institutional policies such as, but not necessarily limited to, Dignity and Respect, Equality of Persons, Statements of Diversity, Recruitment and Admissions, Human Rights, Integrity of Learning Environments, Occupational Health and Safety, Use of Substances, Professional Development, Human Resources, and other policies that exist or may be enacted.
Statement of Principles
Post-secondary learning institutions in Canada recognize the following core principles integral to effective teaching and learning:
All learners are inherently equal and must be afforded both the opportunity and right to participate in both the academic and co-curricular life of the institution.
All learners have the right to follow a path of their choosing in pursuit of their academic dreams.
New approaches to teaching and learning, including pedagogical approaches and means of assessment, are required to satisfy the evolving learning needs of the 21st century while maintaining the need for depth and breadth of content knowledge.
Innovative pedagogy and educator pedagogical literacy are central to effective teaching and learning and should arise from both the intrinsic inclinations of learners toward knowledge acquisition and the experience and skills of educators.
Pedagogical practices supporting well-being must account for and mitigate stressors that learners may experience on their academic journey, such as by applying a constructivist lens to pedagogical and curriculum development, and employing open educational and pedagogical resources where available.
Educators are most effective as facilitators of pedagogy and as designers of learning environments when they work within a 360o culture of caring, support, and lifelong learning.
The mental health and well-being of both educators and learners is critical to effective teaching and learning and, therefore, should become a central goal of pedagogy and educator capacity building.
Provincial or territorial human rights act or code
Provincial or territorial occupational health and safety act
Provincial or territorial universities and colleges act
Mental Health is “the capacities of each and all of us to feel, think, and act in ways that enhance our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. It is a positive sense of emotional and spiritual well-being that respects the importance of culture, equity, social justice, interconnections, and personal dignity” (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2002, para. 2).
Well-being is “the presence of the highest possible quality of life in its full breadth of expression focused on but not necessarily exclusive to: good living standards, robust health, a sustainable environment, vital communities, an educated populace, balanced time use, high levels of democratic participation, and access to participation in leisure and culture” (University of Waterloo, 2020, para. 1).
Mental Health Literacy “encompasses the knowledge, beliefs and abilities that enable the recognition, management or prevention of mental health problems with a range of benefits including early recognition and intervention, and reduction of stigma associated with mental illness” (UBC Faculty of Education, 2020, para. 3).
Vice Chancellor (VC) or Vice President, Academic (VPA)
Holds overall accountability and responsibility for day-to-day institutional administration of the academic policies of the institution. The VC or VPA may delegate authority to identified roles as described below.
Deans, Directors, and Senior Managers of Faculties and Schools
Implements and promotes the behaviours and principles of institutional policies that positively influence the well-being of both learners and staff.
Implements policies for teams and areas that they supervise directly.
Establishes a culture of lifelong learning by implementing opportunities for educator capacity building and mitigating barriers to participation by allocating time in all workloads for learning, synthesis, and adoption into practice.
Directors and Senior Managers of Professional Services and Non-Academic Units
Assesses any risks to health and well-being and implements appropriate control measures so that risks are eliminated or mitigated to a level deemed safe and conducive to teaching, learning, and work.
Maintains the strictest confidence of any personal and health information that may be disclosed by learners or staff, releasing it only as appropriate and to whom it may be appropriate to support an individual or protect their well-being and safety and/or that of others who may be affected.
Front Line Managers and Supervisors
Conducts risk assessments and develops group responses (e.g. Emergency Evacuation Plan) or individual responses (e.g. Mental Health Care Plan) to minimize risk and maximize health and well-being.
Monitors staff workloads and schedules to ensure a balance between work time, breaks, and time away from work.
Consults, as required, with educators and other administrators regarding plans to maximize health and well-being and/or to assess and identify strategies and interventions required for individual support.
Ensures, in consultation with Human Resources, that those away from work or learning are provided with appropriate time off to attend appointments and/or have an appropriate return to work plan.
Designs learning environments that are conducive to 21st century learning and that are respectful and inclusive of all learners.
Develops innovative pedagogies using a constructivist approach focused on learners’ co-creation of knowledge and resources (e.g. open educational and pedagogical resources) that mitigate academic stressors experienced by learners.
Supports all learners to the extent appropriate within the 360o support structure.
Engages in and adopts a personal culture of lifelong learning respecting the ongoing and evolving needs, including mental health and well-being support needs, of learners.
Evidence of Need
Economic Cost of Mental Illness
Canada spends less than most developed countries on the promotion of mental well-being and the prevention of mental illness (Deraspe, 2013). Three types of costs associated with this affect Canada’s economy. Direct costs include those required for treatment, support, and rehabilitation. Indirect costs usually manifest in low productivity in the workplace through absenteeism, presenteeism, and withdrawal from the labour market. There are also human costs associated with a loss of enjoyment of life and pain, including emotional pain, resulting from anxiety, depression, other illness, and their potential side effects such as loss of relationships (Deraspe, 2013).
In an Institute of Health Economics study, work was conducted to determine the financial cost of mental illness to the Canadian economy, including direct, indirect, and human costs. In all, the estimated obligation to the economy in 2006 was $52 billion (Lim et al., 2008) and this amount was expected to grow as the population increases and as the number of Canadians experiencing mental illness increases.
Educational Cost of Mental Illness
If left unidentified or unsupported, learners with mental illness risk being left behind for a variety of reasons including poor attendance, lack of institutional support, and difficulty assessing and evaluating progress (Roberts, 2014). Any mental illness, alone or when compounded, has the ability to impair cognitive functioning (Eisenberg et al., 2009).
A variety of other behavioural manifestations of mental illness affect education participation and success. Depression can lead to sleep disorders (both too little and too much), decreased energy levels, difficulty concentrating, restlessness and slow movement, suicide ideation, and feelings of sadness and hopelessness. In addition to some of the outcomes of depression, anxiety can bring on uncontrollable worrying, an inability to focus on the task at hand, and panic attacks (Eisenberg et al., 2009). Mental illness directly affects attendance. For example, many people with depression experience a lack of interest and pleasure in engaging in their usual activities. Known as anhedonia, this condition is strongly correlated with decreasing grade point averages and increasing drop-out rates (Eisenberg et al., 2009; Pascoe et al., 2020).
Social Cost of Mental Illness
It is often a challenge for learners with mental illness to create, maintain, and even participate in relationships and friendships. Many mental illnesses can lead to personal withdrawal. In school, this can manifest as an inability to take part in group work and activities or to approach their teacher to ask questions. These behaviours can be compounded by absenteeism and other stressors and may, if they spiral to a personal threshold, result in self-destructive behaviours such as substance abuse, involvement with law enforcement, self-harm, and suicide ideation (Roberts, 2014).
The overarching presence of social stigma about mental illness can exacerbate the need to withdraw. People with mental illness face discrimination on a regular basis. They risk being labelled and deal with chronic stress. Stigma may prevent some from seeking treatment and others to abandon their treatment. It also affects relationships with friends and family in two ways: (a) adversely affecting them by association, and (b) when they engage in stigmatizing language and action (Link & Phelan, 2006). Max and Waters (2018) report on one study’s findings indicating that 30% of learners who could have benefited from mental health support services fail to disclose information about their health fearing discrimination from faculty and peers and limited employment prospects if employers learn about their disclosure.
In recent years, the concept of loneliness entered discourse related to mental health and well-being. “It can be construed as a painful experience that happens when there is a subjective difference between the desired and actual social interaction” (Wang et al., 2020, p. 2). The effects of loneliness on physical health leading to such issues as obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, heart disease, and stroke are well known. More recent studies link loneliness with psychosis, depression, personality disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, and suicide (Wang et al., 2020). Learners making the transition to PSE, especially those who relocate to a new city or country, may be predisposed toward loneliness. Research conducted by Richardson et al. (2017) found that loneliness contributes to challenges to well-being faced by students. An informal study conducted in May 2020 by OutLife, an equality, health, and rights organization based in the UK, with more than 2,300 respondents, found that loneliness almost tripled from 21% pre-COVID-19 to 56% during the pandemic (OutLife, 2020). Further findings suggest that those with differing sexual orientations or gender identities may also experience loneliness and, by extension, challenges to their mental well-being, more than the average population.
Political Cost of Mental Illness
The Canada Health Act is the legislation governing healthcare in Canada. “The objective of the Canada Health Act is to protect, promote and restore the mental and physical well-being of Canadians and to ensure reasonable access to health services regardless of personal factors such as income, education or cultural differences” (McPhail, 2017, para. 2). Funded federally, each province and territory provides healthcare services that are medically necessary. The concept of ‘medically necessary’ is the subject of debate in Canada, and several services such as dentistry, optometry, and mental health remain only partially covered. This leaves individuals with the burden of paying for healthcare if needed and many simply opt not to seek help. Others avoid doing so because of stigma (McPhail, 2017).
While the current Canadian government promised in 2016 to increase funding for mental health and well-being, the systemic act of only partially funding healthcare in Canada has the potential of ‘othering’ portions of the population. ‘Othering’ is defined by Merriam-Webster (2020, entry 5 of 5) as “to treat or consider (a person or a group of people) as alien to oneself or one's group (as because of different racial, sexual, or cultural characteristics).” The process of creating an environment that others people or groups, whether purposeful or inadvertent, creates an “affectively charged… boundary between ingroup and outgroup” (Kirmayer, 2019, p. 1126). The politics of othering originates in colonialism and examples are rampant in today’s world. For example, young Muslim men must navigate life through a web of discrimination. Black men and women of all ages must do the same with racism and learn to teach their children how to remain alive from one day to the next because of it. As Canada continues to experience, the systemic othering of indigenous peoples results in an intense distrust of governments and police, adding to the challenge of rekindling a relationship through reconciliation (Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015). Those with mental illness fear the same cognitive segregation (Kirmayer, 2019).
Supporting Educator Capacity Building
“Teaching now is more dynamic, challenging and demanding than ever before” (OECD, 2018a, p. 3). Teachers may be reliant upon school leaders to ensure that a supportive infrastructure is in place, but they must also be prepared sufficiently to be able to foster mental well-being class-wide, to facilitate an environment supportive of social emotional learning, to identify signs of distress, and to provide accommodations for and transitions to and through a variety of professional services that may be required for vulnerable learners (Daniszewski, 2013; Fortier et al., 2017; Headley & Campbell, 2013).
“The area of student mental health and well-being is complex” (School Mental Health-Assist, 2019, p. 41). Everyone, everywhere, including all staff in the school districts in Canada and around the world can benefit from mental well-being awareness training, but this level of training is insufficient for full support. Instead, school leaders and educators require ongoing, role-specific, professional training to build the confidence, competencies, and capacity necessary to be properly and effectively supportive (Daniszewski, 2013). Indeed, the OECD (2018) reports that educators felt more prepared and required less professional development in environments in which school leadership established a culture of support. That said, “[s]pecial needs education training emerges as the highest need area expressed by teachers among 14 TALIS professional development areas” (OECD, 2018, p. 3).
It is also imperative to acknowledge the well-being of educators. Often facing an “intensification and multiplicity of demands” (Houghton & Anderson, 2017, p. 10), educators’ capacities to support learners’ well-being may be affected. Drawing from a constructivist approach to curriculum and pedagogy, I would advocate for the need to provide opportunities for dialogue about mental well-being among colleagues as well as appropriate time within an educator’s work schedule to facilitate both the synthesis of new knowledge and its integration into both lesson planning and practice. Permitting and encouraging educators to make meaning for themselves by understanding the linkages between well-being and learning seems to be core to being able to support learners (Houghton & Anderson, 2017).
In a recent study conducted in British Columbia, 100% of educator participants indicated that their institutions would be interested in open educational resources (OERs) as a potential support to them in support of mental health and well-being (Moore, 2019). Specifically focusing on modular and easily repurposed resources, respondents envisioned that OERs could be used in a variety of ways: (a) behavioural forms, (b) suicide intervention training, and (c) curricula, both for their own training and to incorporate into lesson plans for delivery to learners.
In addition to the use of OERs, such as e-textbooks, to specifically mitigate academic stressors experienced by learners (i.e. financial stressors), these help to satisfy global agreements related to OERs that are supported by BC Campus and several other Canadian organizations promoting their use. Specifically, their use in this way helps to build capacity in the use, repurposing, and sharing of OERs; and developing a culture of supportive policy (UNESCO, 2012, 2017). To learn more about OERs, see Appendix A.
Ontario launched a pilot initiative that provides support but that also recognizes realistic limitations of educators’ abilities. Based on the premise that all learners deserve to have access to mental health support and promotion programs and that educators cannot be expected to provide for the totality of learner need alone, the Aligned and Integration Model (AIM) is producing results since it was piloted in two school districts and is being introduced across the province (School Mental Health Ontario, 2019; School Mental Health-Assist, 2019). See Appendix B for details about the AIM model as a potential solution.
I recall a time back in elementary school when I was in Grade 5 or 6 and there was about to be a solar eclipse. There were many warnings leading up to the event cautioning against looking at the sun while in eclipse. Curiosity threatened to damage some young eyes, but my teacher had a solution. We were each given a paper cup and, with a nail, punched a small round hole in the bottom. Outside, holding the cup upside down so that the hole behaved like the aperture of a camera, the image of the eclipse projected onto a piece of paper held below. True amazement!
That pinhole opened dozens of eyes to wonders they had never experienced. It is this very sense of wonder, curiosity, and discovery that every learner has the right to experience. Similarly, it is this very sense of awe, inspiration, and interest in the world that every educator has the right to be able to foster among learners. Moreover, it happened in a safe, inclusive learning environment in which every learner could experience, internalize, and create the meaning they needed.
By enacting policies that promote teaching and learning to achieve similar outcomes for learners and educators, we ensure that our education system reflects who we are, as individuals, and where we are going, as a people.
Open Educational Resources (OERs)
With roots in the development of learning objects, OERs are, in their simplest form, “any resource available free of cost, mostly on the Internet” (Mishra, 2017, p. 371). However, while most material on the Internet may be accessible and seemingly usable, they may also be subject to various copyright restrictions regarding use, reuse, revision, and repurposing. Copyright protects the creator of the document or work. In recent years, there are growing repositories of OERs providing resources for teaching, learning, and research that “reside in the public domain or under an intellectual property licence that permits their free use and repurposing by others” (William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (2017), as cited in Mishra, 2017, p. 372). Such repositories may include entire course curricula, learning and teaching materials, textbooks, videos, assessments and evaluations, and tools to support knowledge acquisition.
In 2012, UNESCO member countries established the OER Paris Declaration reaffirming the definition of OERs as follows: “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work” (UNESCO, 2012, para. 2). At the same time, it made note that OERs contribute toward the achievement of such other international goals as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 2015) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (United Nations, 2020b).
In 2017, UNESCO marked the Year of Open with the 2nd World OER Congress, hosted in Ljubljana, Slovenia, where attendees identified strategies to act in the adoption of OERs. Specifically, they streamlined the goals for the use of OERs to conform with and contribute toward achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) (United Nations, 2020a) related to the provision of quality education as follows:
Promoting the use, reuse, creation, and repurposing of OERs and building the capacity to do so;
Establishing that OERs should be available in as many languages and cultural contexts as possible, including indigenous languages;
Ensuring ubiquitous access to OERs by all learners in all learning contexts (formal, informal, and non-formal);
Defining models of sustainability, such as means by which to encourage new OER developers to contribute, to assure OER quality, and to promote OER innovation; and
Developing national policy environments in support of OERs (UNESCO, 2017).
In Canada, OERs are gaining traction and the community of educators making use of them continues to grow. In British Columbia (BC), for example, OERs began in 2013 with the launch of the Open Textbook project. Since then, not only is a growing repository of diverse resources available, but BC Campus estimates that BC students saved in excess of $12 million by 2018 through the use of open textbooks alone (Caldwell, 2019, para. 3). BC Campus, along with the University of Northern British Columbia and the Journal of Human Security, are credited with advancing the agenda toward SDG 4 by bringing OERs and the discipline of human security closer together through the 2017 open textbook release of Human Security in World Affairs: Problems and Opportunities – 2nd Edition. This is significant because, in the words of Mahbub ul Haq, Pakistani economist, politician, international development theorist, and founder of the concept of human security, “ human security means a child who did not die, a disease that did not spread, an ethnic tension that did not explode, a dissident who was not silenced, a human spirit that was not crushed” (Caldwell, 2020, para. 5).
Following are several OER websites containing resources that are publicly available. This is not an exhaustive list.
BC Campus OpenEd
BC Faculty OER Toolkit
eCampusOntario Open Educational Resources
eCampusOntario Open Library
Dalhousie University Open Educational Resources
University of Waterloo Centre for Teaching Excellence – OER Canada
Ontario Tech University Open Educational Resources
Ontario’s Solution: The Aligned and Integration Model
The Aligned and Integration Model (AIM) conceptualizes and supports a multi-tiered approach to well-being support as illustrated in Figure 1. Tier 1 supports mental health promotion for all students. Educators, administrators, and all other school staff receive ongoing professional development in this area so that regular support can be woven into pedagogy, practice, and the creation of the learning environment.
FIGURE 1: Aligned and Integration Model (AIM)
(School Mental Health Ontario, 2019; School Mental Health-Assist, 2019)
Tier 2 is needed for some learners and focuses on identifying learners at risk and the provision of preventive intervention strategies. This may involve educators, but non-routine and in-depth strategies become the responsibility of a broader team of support professionals.
Tier 3 is essential for a few learners and supports learners with a significant mental health challenge and requiring more intensive interventions and therapies. Trained mental health professionals, either from the community or school district, would be engaged for the provision of these services.
The entire mental health leadership team provides 360o support for learners in need and includes educators, administrators, other school staff, mental health professionals, families, general practitioners, and mental health coaches all supported centrally by the school district and School Mental Health Ontario (SMHO). SMHO identifies and tests support resources with the assistance of subject matter experts. The entire support team has access to an Innovation and Scale-Up Lab in which experimentation and learning about supportive resource implementation occurs.
For more information about AIM, please refer to the ‘Overview of Mental Well-Being at School’ Info Sheet available at https://smh-assist.ca/wp-content/uploads/InfoSheets-Supporting-Minds-MH-Classroom-English.pdf.
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Caldwell, J. (2019). $3.26M pledged to OER to enable student savings throughout the province. BCcampus News. shorturl.at/admuy
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